One of the phrases that annoys me no end is the TTC stating that ‘teaching is an art, not a science’. It annoys me for principally three reasons. The first is that it forces a false dichotomy. ‘Do you think teaching can be a science like physics? No? then it’s an art’. Fortunately we’re not actually required to choose one or the other, after all, as Willingham notes, medicine isn’t a science in the way physics is, but science can help to inform it. Likewise, science can help to inform education.
The second is the overwhelming asymmetry in the number of claimants. that is, hardly anyone, anywhere, is claiming the opposite. Search online and you’ll find It’s really quite hard to find supporters of the ‘actually, teaching is a science’ position.
The troops are massing, but the enemy is nowhere to be found. In fact I was only able to find one supporter. Daniel Lindley Jr wrote a paper in 1970 titled ‘teaching is a science not an art’. Interestingly there are quite a few papers and blogs on this subject where the author will say ‘some people claim teaching is a science’ but almost never any citation or link to where I might find the people allegedly saying this. Sure, there are people who say teaching is both an art and a science, but no one fighting for a ‘science only’ vision of teaching.
The second interesting thing about this statement is exactly when it’s used. As there is seemingly no one promoting the idea that ‘teaching is a science’ the phrase tends to appear to support a whole raft of unconnected propositions. For example, you can use it when attacking the ‘broken’ education system:
When criticising teacher grading:
When railing against common core
When railing against tests in general.
When promoting the value of student placement.
When warning against the deindividualization of students
when promoting…erm…’vital infusing core values'(?)
and of course when arguing that students ‘are not fish’
It doesn’t really seem to matter how disparate the ideas may be, you can, it seems, use this phrase as an all-purpose battle-cry. The notion that someone, somewhere is trying to ‘sciencify’ education seems to terrify some even though it’s not entirely clear who is trying to do that.
Among my reading of researchers and educators I have yet to come across anyone claiming that education should be, or can be an entirely scientific endeavour. John Hattie (2009:2) calls teaching an ‘art’. Tom Bennett, the director of researchED calls it a ‘craft‘, as does Daniel Willingham. And Ben Goldacre in his paper on education notes that “being a good doctor, or teacher, or manager, isn’t about robotically following the numerical output of randomised trials.” In the EFL world, Rod Ellis writes that while research is important it is ‘not capable of providing teachers with recipes for successful practice’ (2008:xxiv).
When so many people are railing against an imaginary foe, we have to wonder why? Science attempts to be objective and exact, art is a bit more subjective. Hattie (2009) notes that teachers operate on an ‘anything goes’ model of best-practice and insulate themselves against criticism with the unspoken law that “I’ll leave you alone, if you leave me alone to teach my way”(2009:1). In other words, classrooms can be personal fiefdoms where a teacher the power to teach any way they like. Could it be that the notion of someone, somewhere trying to systematize some aspect of teaching, and make teachers’ more accountable, threatens the convenient status quo?